The first evidence of paralytic shellfish toxins in the freshwater cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, isolated from Brazil

Lagos, N.; Andrinolo, D; Onodera, H; Oshima, Y; Zagatto P.A.; Azevedo S.M.F.Q.

Keywords: model, performance, isolation, chromatography, mouse, marine, taxonomy, animals, cyanobacteria, assay, identification, cell, pressure, bioassay, liquid, mice, neurotoxicity, mass, dyes, chlorophyta, brazil, algae, male, shellfish, saxitoxin, toxins, drug, article, spectrometry, paralysis, fluorescent, animal, cyanobacterium, neosaxitoxin, priority, nonhuman, journal, biological, High, Chromatography,, Cylindrospermopsis, raciborskii


The blooms of toxic cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) are causing problems in many countries. During a screening of toxic freshwater cyanobacteria in Brazil, three strains isolated from the State of Sao Paulo were found toxic by the mouse bioassay. They all were identified as Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii by a close morphological examination. Extracts of cultured cells caused acute death to mice when injected intraperitoneally after developing neurotoxic symptoms which resembled to those caused by paralytic shellfish toxins. The analysis of the sample by HPLC-FLD postcolumn derivatization method for paralytic shellfish toxins resulted in the detection of several saxitoxin analogs. To avoid being misled by false peaks, the sample was reanalyzed after purification and also under the different postcolumn derivatizing conditions. Finally, the newly developed LC-MS method for paralytic shellfish toxins was applied to unambiguously identify the toxins. One isolate produced neosaxitoxin predominantly with saxitoxin as a minor component. The other two showed identical toxin profiles containing saxitoxin and gonyautoxins 2/3 isomers in the ratio of 1:9.This is the first evidence of paralytic shellfish toxins in this species and also the occurrence of the toxin producing cyanobacterium in South American countries. Copyright (C) 1999.

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Título de la Revista: TOXICON
Volumen: 37
Número: 10
Fecha de publicación: 1999
Página de inicio: 1359
Página final: 1373