The gonyautoxin 2/3 epimers reduces anal tone when injected in the anal sphincter of healty adults

Garrido, R; Azolas, R; Bocic, G; Cuneo A.; Chiong, H; Jensen, C; Henríquez Á.; Lagos, N.; Lattes, K; Garcia C.; Fernandez, C.

Keywords: performance, muscle, chromatography, relaxation, marine, follow-up, research, movement, blood, manometry, pressure, liquid, experiment, humans, contraction, human, male, electromyography, aged, sphincter, saxitoxin, toxins, adult, outcomes, article, analysis, sampling, follow, gonyautoxin, urinalysis, controlled, intramuscular, statistical, voluntary, studies, study, middle, up, normal, High, Injections,, tone, canal, anus, Tonus, anorectal, significance, epimer, Anal


The primary clinical symptom of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning is acute paralytic illness produced by paralyzing toxins. Paralytic shellfish poison is formed by a mixture of phycotoxins and their toxicity is due to its reversible binding to a receptor site on the voltage-gated sodium channel on excitable cells, thus blocking neuronal transmission. We studied the effect of the gonyautoxin 2/3 epimers by local infiltration in the anal internal sphincter of healthy voluntary adults in order to reduce anal tone. The toxin was injected after prior clinical evaluation, anoscopy and anorectal manometry. Post injection clinical examination, electromyography and anorectal manometry were performed. Resting and voluntary contraction pressures were measured and the anorectal inhibitory and anocortical reflexes were tested by manometry. Blood and urine samples were obtained from each participant, and hemogram, basic metabolic panel, and urinalysis were done both before and one week after the injection. This study shows, for the first time, that gonyautoxin 2/3 reduces the anal tone by relaxing the anal sphincters in 100 % of the participants. Manometric recordings showed a significant decrease in anal maximal voluntary contraction pressure after the toxin injection, dropping to 55.2 ± 6.2 % and 47.0 ± 6.8 % (Mean Value ± Std.Dev.) of the baseline values at 2 minutes and at 24 hours respectively after the injection. Post-injection electromyography showed that activity of the muscle was abolished. We conclude that local administration of gonyautoxin 2/3 to the anal sphincter produces immediate relaxation and a statistically significant decrease in the anal tone (p <0.001).

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Título según SCOPUS: The gonyautoxin 2/3 epimers reduces anal tone when injected in the anal sphincter of healty adults
Título de la Revista: BIOLOGICAL RESEARCH
Volumen: 37
Número: 3
Fecha de publicación: 2004
Página de inicio: 395
Página final: 403
Idioma: English