Structure-function of proteins interacting with the alpha(1) pore-forming subunit of high-voltage-activated calcium channels
Openings of high-voltage-activated (HVA) calcium channels lead to a transient increase in calcium concentration that in turn activate a plethora of cellular functions, including muscle contraction, secretion and gene transcription. To coordinate all these responses calcium channels form supramolecular assemblies containing effectors and regulatory proteins that couple calcium influx to the downstream signal cascades and to feedback elements. According to the original biochemical characterization of skeletal muscle Dihydropyridine receptors, HVA calcium channels are multi-subunit protein complexes consisting of a pore-forming subunit (alpha(1)) associated with four additional polypeptide chains beta, alpha(2), delta, and gamma, often referred to as accessory subunits. Twenty-five years after the first purification of a high-voltage calcium channel, the concept of a flexible stoichiometry to expand the repertoire of mechanisms that regulate calcium channel influx has emerged. Several other proteins have been identified that associate directly with the alpha(1)-subunit, including calmodulin and multiple members of the small and large GTPase family. Some of these proteins only interact with a subset of alpha(1)-subunits and during specific stages of biogenesis. More strikingly, most of the alpha(1)-subunit interacting proteins, such as the beta-subunit and small GTPases, regulate both gating and trafficking through a variety of mechanisms. Modulation of channel activity covers almost all biophysical properties of the channel. Likewise, regulation of the number of channels in the plasma membrane is performed by altering the release of the alpha(1)-subunit from the endoplasmic reticulum, by reducing its degradation or enhancing its recycling back to the cell surface. In this review, we discuss the structural basis, interplay and functional role of selected proteins that interact with the central pore-forming subunit of HVA calcium channels.
|Título según WOS:||Structure-function of proteins interacting with the alpha(1) pore-forming subunit of high-voltage-activated calcium channels|
|Título según SCOPUS:||Structure-function of proteins interacting with the ?1 pore-forming subunit of high-voltage-activated calcium channels|
|Título de la Revista:||FRONTIERS IN PHYSIOLOGY|
|Editorial:||FRONTIERS MEDIA SA|
|Fecha de publicación:||2014|