Schwann Cell Reprogramming Into Repair Cells Increases Exosome-Loaded miRNA-21 Promoting Axonal Growth

López-Leal R, Díaz-Viraqué F, Catalan RJ, Saquel C, Enright A, Iraola G, Court FA.

Keywords: Schwann cell, Exosomes, Axonal outgrowth, Axonal regeneration, miRNA-21


Functional recovery after peripheral nerve damage is dependent on the reprogramming of differentiated Schwann cells (dSCs) into repair Schwann cells (rSCs), which promotes axonal regeneration and tissue homeostasis. Transition into a repair phenotype requires expression of c-Jun and Sox2, which transcriptionally mediates inhibition of the dSC program of myelination and activates a non-cell-autonomous repair program, characterized by the secretion of neuronal survival and regenerative molecules, formation of a cellular scaffold to guide regenerating axons and activation of an innate immune response. Moreover, rSCs release exosomes that are internalized by peripheral neurons, promoting axonal regeneration. Here, we demonstrate that reprogramming of Schwann cells (SCs) is accompanied by a shift in the capacity of their secreted exosomes to promote neurite growth, which is dependent on the expression of c-Jun (also known as Jun) and Sox2 by rSCs. Furthermore, increased expression of miRNA-21 is responsible for the pro-regenerative capacity of rSC exosomes, which is associated with PTEN downregulation and PI3-kinase activation in neurons. We propose that modification of exosomal cargo constitutes another important feature of the repair program of SCs, contributing to axonal regeneration and functional recovery after nerve injury.

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Título de la Revista: JOURNAL OF CELL SCIENCE
Volumen: 133
Número: 12
Fecha de publicación: 2020