Molecular diagnostic approaches for SARS-CoV-2 detection and pathophysiological consequences

Salazar-Ardiles, C., Asserella-Rebollo, L., Cornejo, C., Arias, D., Vasquez-Muñoz, M., Toledo, C., Andrade, D.C


SARS-CoV-2, a novel coronavirus within the Coronaviridae family, is the causative agent behind the respiratory ailment referred to as COVID-19. Operating on a global scale, COVID-19 has led to a substantial number of fatalities, exerting profound effects on both public health and the global economy. The most frequently reported symptoms encompass fever, cough, muscle or body aches, loss of taste or smell, headaches, and fatigue. Furthermore, a subset of individuals may manifest more severe symptoms, including those consistent with viral pneumonitis, which can be so profound as to result in fatalities. Consequently, this situation has spurred the rapid advancement of disease diagnostic technologies worldwide. Predominantly employed in diagnosing COVID-19, the real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR has been the foremost diagnostic method, effectively detecting SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA. As the pandemic has evolved, antigen and serological tests have emerged as valuable diagnostic tools. Antigen tests pinpoint specific viral proteins of SARS-CoV-2, offering swift results, while serological tests identify the presence of antibodies in blood samples. Additionally, there have been notable strides in sample collection methods, notably with the introduction of saliva-based tests, presenting a noninvasive substitute to nasopharyngeal swabs. Given the ongoing mutations in SARS-CoV-2, there has been a continuous need for genomic surveillance, encompassing full genome sequencing and the identification of new variants through Illumina technology and, more recently, nanopore metagenomic sequencing (SMTN). Consequently, while diagnostic testing methods for COVID-19 have experienced remarkable progress, no test is flawless, and there exist limitations with each technique, including sensitivity, specificity, sample collection, and the minimum viral load necessary for accurate detection. These aspects are comprehensively addressed within this current review.

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Editorial: Molecular Biology Reports
Fecha de publicación: 2023
Página de inicio: 1
Página final: 16