Characterization and trypanocidal activity of nifurtimox-containing and empty nanoparticles of polyethylcyanoacrylates

Gonzalez-Martin, G; Merino, I.; Rodriguez-Cabezas M.N.; Osuna A.; Torres M.; Núñez, R.

Keywords: electron, apoptosis, system, growth, inhibition, size, polymerization, animals, culture, cell, disease, trypanosoma, release, microscopy, ph, formulation, degeneration, delivery, surfactant, nifurtimox, agent, targeting, particle, drug, carrier, article, carriers, emulsion, cytometry, cruzi, microspheres, uptake, cyanoacrylates, controlled, chagas, study, nanoparticle, nonhuman, 2, cytolysis, antitrypanosomal, epimastigote, poly(ethyl, cyanoacrylate)


The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of nanoparticles of polyalkylcyanoacrylate as a targeted delivery system for nifurtimox against Trypanosoma cruzi, responsible for Chagas' disease. Ethylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles were prepared by an emulsion polymerization process and formulations containing different concentrations of nifurtimox, polyethylcyanoacrylates and surfactants were investigated and analysed for size and drug content. The nanoparticles obtained were less than 200 nm in size, as measured by electron microscopy and cytometry. The peak percentage of nifurtimox uptake into the nanoparticles was 33.4% for use of 500 ?L polyethylcyanoacrylate, 200 ?L surfactant (Tween 20) and 10 mg nifurtimox in 50 mL polymerization medium. The highest release of nifurtimox from the nanoparticles was 65.4% after 6-h incubation at pH 7.4. In-vitro studies using cultures of T. cruzi epimastigotes revealed considerably increased trypanocidal activity compared with a standard solution of nifurtimox. Studies of cell cultures previously infected with metacyclic forms of the parasite showed that only 2-h treatment with solutions of 0.001% of the nanoparticle suspension reduced parasitism by 87-94% both when the nanoparticles were loaded with nifurtimox and when unloaded. Electronmicroscopic examination revealed processes of degeneration and lysis, suggesting apoptotic processes, in intracellular amastigotes and free amastigotes treated with the nanoparticles. It was demonstrated that unloaded nanoparticles, by mechanisms not completely elucidated, have trypanocide activity similar to that of a standard solution of nifurtimox. It is concluded that the nanoparticles loaded with nifurtimox constitutes a good carrier of the drug against T. cruzi. The loaded-nanoparticles significantly increase trypanocidal activity.

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Volumen: 50
Número: 1
Fecha de publicación: 1998
Página de inicio: 29
Página final: 35