Trasplante de células troncales: mecanismos de acción para sus usos potenciales en neurología

Soler, Bernardita; von Bernhardi *, Rommy

Keywords: angiogenesis, glia, neurotrophic factor, immunomodulation neuroinflammation, transdiferentiation, factor neurotrófico, inmunomodulación neuroinflamación, transdiferenciación


Stem cells have a great potential for the treatment of presently incurable neurological diseases, including spinal trauma, cerebrovascular pathology, brain tumor and neurodegenerative processes, such as Parkinson and Alzheimer's disease, Huntington, multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Aims: To discuss the characteristics of the various stem cells types having been proposed for cell therapy, and the biological mechanisms responsible for their therapeutic effects. Report: Stem cells can be induced to differentiate into specialized cells such as neurons and glial cells, and they can influence the environment around them, both through the secretion of neurotrophic factors and immunomodulation of the host neuroimmune response. Furthermore, the understanding of the modulatory effect of stem cells could lead to the development of new therapeutic paradigms. Nevertheless, two important limitations of the field are that the ideal source for stem cells is not well defined yet and the mechanism of stem cell mediated functional improvement is not well understood. Conclusions: Research is currently focused on the biological mechanisms of stem cells therapy and the assessment of stem cell programming and delivery to the target regions. Furthermore, future research will increasingly target ways to enhance effectiveness of the stem cell therapy, including its combination with gene therapy. Regardless its enormous potentials, there are still many problems to be solved before clinical application of stem cell therapy can de used in neurological disease patients.

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Título según SCIELO: Trasplante de células troncales: mecanismos de acción para sus usos potenciales en neurología
Volumen: 49
Número: 2
Editorial: Sociedad de Neurología, Psiquiatría y Neurocirugía
Fecha de publicación: 2011
Página de inicio: 189
Página final: 199
Idioma: es