EVAPORATION OF LOW-VAPOR PRESSURE METALS USING A CONVENTIONAL MINI ELECTRON BEAM EVAPORATOR
In this article, the evaporation of niobium, ruthenium, and titanium using a conventional mini electron-beam evaporator (Tectrae-flux) is described. These metals require high temperatures for evaporation due to their high melting points, low vapor pressures, and large bond energies between atoms. Usually, a high-power electron-beam evaporator with a power exceeding 600W is used in order to grow films of these metals. However, evaporation conditions for deposition using a mini electron-beam evaporator of low power (600W at 2kV) were obtained. Film thicknesses between 2nm and 12nm were obtained and the films were characterized with different analytical techniques. In the case of ruthenium, a comparison between the evaporation achieved when using a graphite crucible or a metal rod as a target is presented. The quality of the deposited films was ascertained by Auger electron spectroscopy. Niobium and titanium film's thickness and quality were determined by X-ray reflectivity and atomic force microscopy. Theoretical values of vapor pressure as a function of temperature were calculated for niobium, ruthenium, and titanium using the Clausius-Clapyeron equation to compare their evaporation behaviors.
|Título según WOS:||EVAPORATION OF LOW-VAPOR PRESSURE METALS USING A CONVENTIONAL MINI ELECTRON BEAM EVAPORATOR|
|Título de la Revista:||INSTRUMENTATION SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY|
|Editorial:||TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC|
|Fecha de publicación:||2014|
|Página de inicio:||142|