Vaccination in HIV-infected individuals
Vaccinations are key to limiting the increased risk of severe infectious diseases in HIV-infected patients for whom the risk–benefit ratio has been re-evaluated. Vaccine safety and immunogenicity depend on both vaccine type and immune deficiency, while vaccine-induced immune activation promotes a transient increase in viral load. Vaccine immunogenicity is reduced and wanes more rapidly, strengthening the need for revaccination. While inactivated vaccines are safe, attenuated vaccines are theoretically contraindicated, but the risk of infectious diseases outweighs the risks of severe adverse events in endemic areas, where the majority of HIV-infected individuals live, thus allowing their use when immune deficiency is moderate. Immune reconstitution with HAART has improved vaccine immune response, highlighting the importance of global access to and early initiation of therapy.
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|Future Medicine Ltd.
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