Integrated biomarker analysis of chlorpyrifos metabolism and toxicity in the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa
To increase our understanding about the mode of toxic action of organophosphorus pesticides in earthworms, a microcosm experiment was performed with Aporrectodea caliginosa exposed to chlorpyrifos-spiked soils (0.51 and 10 mg kg-(1) dry soil) for 3 and 21 d. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), carboxylesterase (CbE), cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase (CYP450), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were measured in the body wall of earthworms. With short-termexposure, chlorpyrifos inhibited CbE activity (51-89%) compared with controls in both treated groups, whereas AChE activity was depressed in the 10-mg kg(-1) group (87% inhibition). With long-term exposure, chlorpyrifos strongly inhibited all esterase activities (84-97%). Native electrophoresis revealed three AChE isozymes, two of which showed a decreased staining corresponding to the level of pesticide exposure. The impact of chlorpyrifos on CbE activity was also corroborated by zymography. CYP450 activity was low in unexposed earthworms, but it increased (1.5- to 2.4-fold compared to controls) in the earthworms exposed to both chlorpyrifos concentrations for 3 d. Bioactivation of chlorpyrifos was determined by incubating the muscle homogenate in the presence of chlorpyrifos and NAD(H)(2). The mean (+/- SD, n = 40) bioactivation rate in the unexposed earthworms was 0.74 +/- 0.27 nmol NAD(H)(2) oxidized min(-1) mg(-1) protein, and a significant induction was detected in the low/short-term exposure group. GST activity significantly increased (33-35% of controls) in earthworms short-term exposed to both chlorpyrifos concentrations. Current data showed that CYP450 and GST activities had a prominent role in the initial exposure to the organophosphorus. With short-term exposure, CbE activity was also a key enzyme in the non-catalytic detoxification of chlorpyrifos-oxon, thereby reducing its impact on AChE activity, before it became saturated at t=21 d. Results indicate that A. caliginosa detoxify efficiently chlorpyrifos, which would explain its tolerance to relatively high exposure levels to chlorpyrifos. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
|Título según WOS:||Integrated biomarker analysis of chlorpyrifos metabolism and toxicity in the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa|
|Título según SCOPUS:||Integrated biomarker analysis of chlorpyrifos metabolism and toxicity in the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa|
|Título de la Revista:||SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT|
|Editorial:||ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV|
|Fecha de publicación:||2014|
|Página de inicio:||445|