Factors Associated with the Detectability of Owls in South American Temperate Forests: Implications for Nocturnal Raptor Monitoring

Ibarra, JT; Martin K.; Altamirano, TA; Vargas, FH; Bonacic, C.

Abstract

Owls occur at relatively low densities and are cryptic; thus, monitoring programs that estimate variation in detectability will improve inferences about their presence. We investigated temporal and abiotic sources of variation associated with detection probabilities of rufous-legged owls (Strix rufipes), a threatened forest specialist, and austral pygmy-owls (Glaucidium nana), a habitat generalist, in temperate forests of southern Chile. We also assessed whether detection of 1 species was related to the detection of the other species. During 2011-2013, we conducted 1,145 broadcast surveys at 101 sampling units established along an elevational gradient located inside and outside protected areas. We used a multi-season occupancy framework for modeling occupancy () and detection (p), and ranked models using an information-theoretic approach. We recorded 292 detections of rufous-legged owls and 334 detections of austral pygmy-owls. Occupancy was positively associated with elevation for rufous-legged owls but constant (i.e., did not vary with covariates) for pygmy-owls. Detectability for both owls increased with greater moonlight and decreased with environmental noise, and for pygmy-owls greater wind speed decreased detectability. The probability of detecting pygmy-owls increased nonlinearly with number of days since the start of surveys and peaked during the latest surveys of the season (23 Jan-7 Feb). Detection of both species was positively correlated with the detection of the other species. We suggest both species should be surveyed simultaneously for a minimum of 3-4 times during a season, survey stations should be located away from noise, and observers should record the moon phase and weather conditions for each survey. (c) 2014 The Wildlife Society.

Más información

Título según WOS: Factors Associated with the Detectability of Owls in South American Temperate Forests: Implications for Nocturnal Raptor Monitoring
Título según SCOPUS: Factors associated with the detectability of owls in South American temperate forests: Implications for nocturnal raptor monitoring
Título de la Revista: JOURNAL OF WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT
Volumen: 78
Número: 6
Editorial: WILEY-BLACKWELL
Fecha de publicación: 2014
Página de inicio: 1078
Página final: 1086
Idioma: English
DOI:

10.1002/jwmg.740

Notas: ISI, SCOPUS