Coupling planktonic and benthic shifts during a bloom of Alexandrium catenella in southern Chile: Implications for bloom dynamics and recurrence
Keywords: Alexandrium catenella; Bloom encystment/excystment; Chilean Inland Sea; Dinoflagellate cysts; Resting cysts
Cell abundances and distributions of Alexandrium catenella resting cysts in recent sediments were studied along time at two locations in the Chilean Inland Sea exposed to different oceanographic conditions: Low Bay, which is much more open to the ocean than the more interior and protected Ovalada Island. The bloom began in interior areas but maximum cyst concentrations were recorded in locations more open to the ocean, at the end of the Moraleda channel. Our results showed a time lapse of around 3 months from the bloom peak (planktonic population) until the number of resting cysts in the sediments reached a maximum. Three months later, less than 10% of the A. catenella cysts remained in the sediments. Maximum cyst numbers in the water column occurred one month after the planktonic peak, when no cells were present. The dinoflagellate assemblage at both study sites was dominated by heterotrophic cysts, except during the A. catenella bloom. CCA analyses of species composition and environmental factors indicated that the frequency of A. catenella blooms was associated with low temperatures, but not with salinity, chlorophyll a concentration, and predator presence (measured as clam biomass). However, resting cyst distribution was only related to cell abundance and location. The occurrence of A. catenella cysts was also associated with that of cysts from the toxic species Protoceratium reticulatum. By shedding light on the ecological requirements of A. catenella blooms, our observations support the relevance of encystment as a mechanism of bloom termination and show a very fast depletion of cysts from the sediments (<3 months), which suggest a small role for resting cyst deposits in the recurrence of A. catenella blooms in this area. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
|Título según WOS:||Coupling planktonic and benthic shifts during a bloom of Alexandrium catenella in southern Chile: Implications for bloom dynamics and recurrence|
|Título según SCOPUS:||Coupling planktonic and benthic shifts during a bloom of Alexandrium catenella in southern Chile: Implications for bloom dynamics and recurrence|
|Título de la Revista:||Harmful Algae|
|Fecha de publicación:||2014|
|Página de inicio:||9|