The effects of nurse eggs and sibling interactions on the larval development of the poecilogonous annelid Boccardia proboscidea (Spionidae)
Keywords: Cannibalism; Developmental polymorphism; Intra, familial conflict; Maternal effects; Maternal provisioning
In poecilogony, different types of larvae are produced within the same species. Previous studies have suggested maternal control of the production of larval types; however, it is not clear which factors or mechanisms generate contrasting developmental patterns among siblings. The spionid polychaete Boccardia proboscidea produces within the same capsule adelphophagic larvae that eat nurse eggs and siblings and complete all or most of their development inside the capsule (Type A larvae), and larvae with little growth until they hatch as planktotrophic larvae (Type B larvae). In this study, we manipulated capsule content to explore the factors determining larval type in B. proboscidea and the role of extra-embryonic maternal nutrition and sib-sib interaction in the developmental fate of offspring. When early larval stages were grown individually in vitro, with nurse eggs as the only food source, some of them remained small, while others continue developing into larger pre-competent larvae by feeding on nurse eggs. This suggests that larval types in B. proboscidea are determined very early in development and are not solely the product of sib-sib interaction inside the capsule. However, our data also suggest that hatching size variability within larval types of a clutch depends on nurse egg availability. Type B larvae grew normally to metamorphosis when phytoplankton was available, but suffered high rates of cannibalism by Type A larvae. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that individual larval fates are determined very early in development and that once their fate is determined, hatching size and intracapsular survival are affected by maternal food provisioning and sibling interaction.
|Título según WOS:||The effects of nurse eggs and sibling interactions on the larval development of the poecilogonous annelid Boccardia proboscidea (Spionidae)|
|Título según SCOPUS:||The effects of nurse eggs and sibling interactions on the larval development of the poecilogonous annelid Boccardia proboscidea (Spionidae)|
|Título de la Revista:||INVERTEBRATE BIOLOGY|
|Fecha de publicación:||2014|
|Página de inicio:||340|