Vas deferens neuro-effector junction: From kymographic tracings to structural biology principles
Keywords: purinergic mechanisms, sympathetic cotransmission, P2X receptor modeling, GPCR modeling, Ectonucleotidases
The vas deferens is a simple bioassay widely used to study the physiology of sympathetic neurotransmission and the pharmacodynamics of adrenergic drugs. The role of ATP as a sympathetic co-transmitter has gained increasing attention and furthered our understanding of its role in sympathetic reflexes. In addition, new information has emerged on the mechanisms underlying the storage and release of ATP. Both noradrenaline and ATP concur to elicit the tissue smooth muscle contractions following sympathetic reflexes or electrical field stimulation of the sympathetic nerve terminals. ATP and adenosine (its metabolic byproduct) are powerful presynaptic regulators of co-transmitter actions. In addition, neuropeptide Y, the third member of the sympathetic triad, is an endogenous modulator. The peptide plus ATP and/or adenosine play a significant role as sympathetic modulators of transmitter's release. This review focuses on the physiological principles that govern sympathetic co-transmitter activity, with special interest in defining the motor role of ATP. In addition, we intended to review the recent structural biology findings related to the topology of the P2X1R based on the crystallized P2X4 receptor from Danio rerio, or the crystallized adenosine A2A receptor as a member of the G protein coupled family of receptors as prototype neuro modulators. This review also covers structural elements of ectonucleotidases, since some members are found in the vas deferens neuro-effector junction. The allosteric principles that apply to purinoceptors are also reviewed highlighting concepts derived from receptor theory at the light of the current available structural elements. Finally, we discuss clinical applications of these concepts. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
|Título según WOS:||Vas deferens neuro-effector junction: From kymographic tracings to structural biology principles|
|Título según SCOPUS:||Vas deferens neuro-effector junction: From kymographic tracings to structural biology principles|
|Título de la Revista:||AUTONOMIC NEUROSCIENCE-BASIC & CLINICAL|
|Fecha de publicación:||2014|
|Página de inicio:||8|