European Code against Cancer, 4th Edition: Tobacco and cancer

Schuez, Joachim; Guha, Neela; Leon, Maria E.; Minozzi, Silvia; McNeill, Ann; Espina, Carolina; Peruga, Armando; Kralikova, Eva


Tobacco use, and in particular cigarette smoking, is the single largest preventable cause of cancer in the European Union (EU). All tobacco products contain a wide range of carcinogens. The main cancer-causing agents in tobacco smoke are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines, aromatic amines, aldehydes, and certain volatile organic compounds. Tobacco consumers are also exposed to nicotine, leading to tobacco addiction in many users. Cigarette smoking causes cancer in multiple organs and is the main cause of lung cancer, responsible for approximately 82% of cases. In 2012, about 313,000 new cases of lung cancer and 268,000 lung cancer deaths were reported in the EU; 28% of adults in the EU smoked tobacco, and the overall prevalence of current use of smokeless tobacco products was almost 2%. Smokeless tobacco products, a heterogeneous category, are also carcinogenic but cause a lower burden of cancer deaths than tobacco smoking. One low-nitrosamine product, snus, is associated with much lower cancer risk than other smokeless tobacco products. Smoking generates second-hand smoke (SHS), an established cause of lung cancer, and inhalation of SHS by non-smokers is still common in indoor workplaces as well as indoor public places, and more so in the homes of smokers. Several interventions have proved effective for stopping smoking; the most effective intervention is the use of a combination of pharmacotherapy and behavioural support. Scientific evidence leads to the following two recommendations for individual action on tobacco in the 4th edition of the European Code Against Cancer: (1) "Donotsmoke. Donot use any form of tobacco"; (2) "Make your home smoke-free. Support smoke-free policies in your workplace". (C) 2015 International Agency for Research on Cancer; Licensee ELSEVIER Ltd

Más información

Título según WOS: ID WOS:000373179500003 Not found in local WOS DB
Título de la Revista: CANCER EPIDEMIOLOGY
Volumen: 39
Fecha de publicación: 2015
Página de inicio: S20
Página final: S33


Notas: ISI