A marine snail neurotoxin shares with scorpion toxins a convergent mechanism of blockade on the pore of voltage-gated K channels

Garcia, E; Scanlon, M; Naranjo, D


kappa-Conotoxin-PVIIA (kappa-PVIIA) belongs to a family of peptides derived from a hunting marine snail that tar gets to a wide variety of ion channels and receptors. kappa-PVIIA is a small, structurally constrained, 27-residue peptide that inhibits voltage-gated K channels. Three disulfide bonds shape a characteristic four-loop folding. The spatial localization of positively charged residues in K-PVIIA exhibits strong structural mimicry to that of charybdotoxin, a scorpion toxin that occludes the pore of K channels. Me studied the mechanism by which this peptide inhibits Shaker, K channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes with the N-type inactivation removed. Chronically applied to whole oocytes or outside-out patches, kappa-PVIIA inhibition appears as a voltage-dependent relaxation in response to the depolarizing pulse used to activate the channels. At any applied voltage, the relaxation rare depended linearly on the toxin concentration, indicating a bimolecular stoichiometry. Time constants and voltage dependence of the current relaxation produced by chronic applications agreed with that of rapid applications to open channels. Effective valence of the voltage dependence, z delta, is similar to 0.55 and resides primarily in the rare of dissociation from the channel, while the association rate is voltage independent with a magnitude of 10(7)-10(8) M-1 s(-1), consistent with diffusion-limited binding. Compatible with a purely competitive interaction for a site in the external vestibule, tetraethylammonium, a well-known Ii-pore blocker, reduced kappa-PVIIA's association rate only. Removal of internal K+ reduced, but did not eliminate, the effective valence of the toxin dissociation rate to a value 0.3. This trans-pore effect suggests that: (a) as in the alpha-KTx, a positively changed side chain, possibly a Lys, interacts electrostatically with ions residing inside the Shaker pore, and (b) a part of the toxin occupies an externally accessible K+ binding site, decreasing the degree of pore occupancy by permeant ions, We conclude that, although evolutionarily distant to scorpion toxins, kappa-PVIIA shares with them a remarkably similar mechanism of inhibition of K channels.

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Título según WOS: ID WOS:000081376900010 Not found in local WOS DB
Volumen: 114
Número: 1
Fecha de publicación: 1999
Página de inicio: 141
Página final: 157


Notas: ISI