Role of DAX-1 (NROB1) and Steroidogenic Factor-1 (NR5A1) in Human Adrenal Function

El-Khairi, Ranna; Martinez-Aguayo, Alejandro; Ferraz-de-Souza, Bruno; Lin, Lin; Achermann, John C.; Ghizzoni, L; Cappa, M; Chrousos, G; Loche, S; Maghnie, M


The nuclear receptor transcription factors DAX-1 (NROB1) and SF-1 (NR5A1) regulate many aspects of adrenal and reproductive development and function. Disruption of the genes encoding these factors can be associated with pediatric adrenal disease. DAX-1 mutations are classically associated with X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and impaired spermatogenesis. However, other phenotypes are also being reported, such as isolated mineralocorticoid insufficiency, premature sexual development, primary adrenal insufficiency in a 46,XX patient and late-onset X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita and/or hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. SF-1 mutations have also been associated with primary adrenal insufficiency, together with 46,XY disorders of sex development. However it is emerging that SF-1 changes are a relatively rare cause of primary adrenal failure in humans, and most individuals with SF-1 mutations have a spectrum of 46,XY disorders of sex development phenotypes. These conditions range from 46,XY females with streak gonads and miillerian structures, through children with ambiguous genitalia and inguinal testes, to severe penoscrotal hypospadias with undescended testes. Therefore, the human gonad appears to be more sensitive than the adrenal gland to loss of SF-1 function. This review will focus on the expanding range of phenotypes associated with DAX-1 and SF-1 mutations. Copyright (C) 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel

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Título según WOS: ID WOS:000287122700004 Not found in local WOS DB
Volumen: 20
Editorial: Karger
Fecha de publicación: 2011
Página de inicio: 38
Página final: 46
Notas: ISI