The Atlantic salmon interleukin 4/13 receptor family: Structure, tissue distribution and modulation of gene expression
Interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 play a central role in T helper 2 immune response in mammals. The cell signalling is mediated by the type I heterodimeric receptor containing the IL-4R alpha and gamma C chains, and the type II receptors formed by IL-4R alpha and IL-13R alpha 1. In salmonid species, three paralogues of the IL-4 and IL-13 cytokines have been reported, il-4/13a, il-4/13b1 and il-4/13b2. In regard to receptors, two paralogues of each IL-4/13 receptor chains have been identified in rainbow trout while five genes named gamma c1, il-4r alpha, il-13r alpha 1a, il-13r alpha 1b, and il-13r alpha 2 have identified in Atlantic salmon. Since Atlantic salmon is an important farmed fish species, the aim of this work was to get new insights into distribution, structure and expression regulation of the IL-4/13 receptors in salmon. By using qRT-PCR, it was shown that all gamma c1, il-4r alpha, il-13r alpha 1a, il-13r alpha 1b, and il-13r alpha 2 receptor chains were expressed in lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues of healthy salmon, nonetheless gamma C expression was higher in lymphoid than non-lymphoid tissues. The in silica structural analysis and homology modelling of the predicted receptor proteins showed that domains and most motifs present in the superior vertebrate chains are conserved in salmon suggesting a conserved role for these receptor chains. Only IL-13R alpha 1B is a receptor chain with a unique structure that seem not to be present in higher vertebrates but in fish species. In order to determine the regulatory role of IL-4/13 on the expression of receptor chains, Atlantic salmon il-4/13A gene was synthetized and cloned in pET15b. The recombinant IL-4/13A was produced in E. coli and the activity of the purified cytokine was confirmed in vitro. The regulatory role of IL-4/13A on the expression of their potential receptors was tested in salmon receiving the recombinant cytokine and effects were compared with those of the control group. The results showed that IL-4/13A induced the expression of its own gene and GATA-3, in the head kidney of fish but not in the spleen, while IL-10 increased in both lymphoid organs indicating a regulatory role of this cytokine on the induction of Th2 responses in salmon. IFNI and MHC class II were also later induced in head kidney. In regard to the expression of the receptor chains, IL-4/13A upregulated the expression of gamma C, IL-13R alpha 1A and IL-13R alpha 2A in the spleen but not in the head kidney of salmon, indicating a role on the modulation of cell signalling for the Th2 response. Furthermore, Piscirickettsia salmonis infection of Atlantic salmon occurred with an increase of gamma C and IL-13R alpha 1A suggesting a potential role of the IL-4/13 system in bacterial immunity or pathogenesis. This study contributes to a better understanding of the IL-4/13A system in salmon, which as a key axis for Th2 response may be involved not only in pathogen elimination but also in adaptive immune repair that seems critical tolerance to infectious diseases.
|Título según WOS:||The Atlantic salmon interleukin 4/13 receptor family: Structure, tissue distribution and modulation of gene expression|
|Título según SCOPUS:||The Atlantic salmon interleukin 4/13 receptor family: Structure, tissue distribution and modulation of gene expression|
|Título de la Revista:||FISH SHELLFISH IMMUNOLOGY|
|Editorial:||ACADEMIC PRESS LTD- ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD|
|Fecha de publicación:||2020|
|Página de inicio:||773|