MAPK Pathway under Chronic Copper Excess in Green Macroalgae (Chlorophyta): Influence on Metal Exclusion/Extrusion Mechanisms and Photosynthesis
There is currently no information regarding the role that whole mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways play in counteracting environmental stress in photosynthetic organisms. To address this gap, we exposed Ulva compressa to chronic levels of copper (10 mu M) specific inhibitors of Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinases (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal Kinases (JNK), and Cytokinin Specific Binding Protein (p38) MAPKs alone or in combination. Intracellular copper accumulation and photosynthetic activity (in vivo chlorophyll a fluorescence) were measured after 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 6 days of exposure. By day 6, when one (except JNK) or more of the MAPK pathways were inhibited under copper stress, there was a decrease in copper accumulation compared with algae exposed to copper alone. When at least two MAPKs were blocked, there was a decrease in photosynthetic activity expressed in lower productivity (ETRmax), efficiency (alpha(ETR)), and saturation of irradiance (EkETR), accompanied by higher non-photochemical quenching (NPQ(max)), compared to both the control and copper-only treatments. In terms of accumulation, once the MAPK pathways were partially or completely blocked under copper, there was crosstalk between these and other signaling mechanisms to enhance metal extrusion/exclusion from cells. Crosstalk occurred among MAPK pathways to maintain photosynthesis homeostasis, demonstrating the importance of the signaling pathways for physiological performance. This study is complemented by a parallel/complementary article Rodriguez-Rojas et al. on the role of MAPKs in copper-detoxification.
|Título según WOS:||MAPK Pathway under Chronic Copper Excess in Green Macroalgae (Chlorophyta): Influence on Metal Exclusion/Extrusion Mechanisms and Photosynthesis|
|Título según SCOPUS:||MAPK Pathway under Chronic Copper Excess in Green Macroalgae (Chlorophyta): Influence on metal exclusion/extrusion mechanisms and photosynthesis|
|Título de la Revista:||INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES|
|Fecha de publicación:||2019|