Effects of chlorpyrifos on soil carboxylesterase activity at an aggregate-size scale

Sanchez-Hernandez, J.C. Sandoval, M.

Keywords: detoxification, andisol, organophosphorus, ed50, soil aggregates, Esterase inhibition


The impact of pesticides on extracellular enzyme activity has been mostly studied on the bulk soil scale, and our understanding of the impact on an aggregate-size scale remains limited. Because microbial processes, and their extracellular enzyme production, are dependent on the size of soil aggregates, we hypothesized that the effect of pesticides on enzyme activities is aggregate-size specific. We performed three experiments using an Andisol to test the interaction between carboxylesterase (CbE) activity and the organophosphorus (OP) chlorpyrifos. First, we compared esterase activity among aggregates of different size spiked with chlorpyrifos (10mgkg-1 wet soil). Next, we examined the inhibition of CbE activity by chlorpyrifos and its metabolite chlorpyrifos-oxon in vitro to explore the aggregate size-dependent affinity of the pesticides for the active site of the enzyme. Lastly, we assessed the capability of CbEs to alleviate chlorpyrifos toxicity upon soil microorganisms. Our principal findings were: 1) CbE activity was significantly inhibited (30-67% of controls) in the microaggregates (<0.25mm size) and smallest macroaggregates (<1.0 - 0.25mm), but did not change in the largest macroaggregates (>1.0mm) compared with the corresponding controls (i.e., pesticide-free aggregates), 2) chlorpyrifos-oxon was a more potent CbE inhibitor than chlorpyrifos; however, no significant differences in the CbE inhibition were found between micro- and macroaggregates, and 3) dose-response relationships between CbE activity and chlorpyrifos concentrations revealed the capability of the enzyme to bind chlorpyrifos-oxon, which was dependent on the time of exposure. This chemical interaction resulted in a safeguarding mechanism against chlorpyrifos-oxon toxicity on soil microbial activity, as evidenced by the unchanged activity of dehydrogenase and related extracellular enzymes in the pesticide-treated aggregates. Taken together, these results suggest that environmental risk assessments of OP-polluted soils should consider the fractionation of soil in aggregates of different size to measure the CbE activity, and other potential soil enzyme activities.

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Volumen: 142
Fecha de publicación: 2017
Página de inicio: 303
Página final: 311
Idioma: ingles

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