A community-based comprehensive intervention to reduce cardiovascular risk in hypertension (HOPE 4): a cluster-randomised controlled trial

Schwalm, Jon-David; McCready, Tara; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Yusoff, Khalid; Attaran, Amir; Lamelas, Pablo; Camacho, Paul A.; Majid, Fadhlina; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I.; Thabane, Lehana; Islam, Shofiqul; McKee, Martin; Yusuf, Salim


Background Hypertension is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease globally. Despite proven benefits, hypertension control is poor. We hypothesised that a comprehensive approach to lowering blood pressure and other risk factors, informed by detailed analysis of local barriers, would be superior to usual care in individuals with poorly controlled or newly diagnosed hypertension. We tested whether a model of care involving non-physician health workers (NPHWs), primary care physicians, family, and the provision of effective medications, could substantially reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Methods HOPE 4 was an open, community-based, cluster-randomised controlled trial involving 1371 individuals with new or poorly controlled hypertension from 30 communities (defined as townships) in Colombia and Malaysia. 16 communities were randomly assigned to control (usual care, n= 727), and 14 (n= 644) to the intervention. After community screening, the intervention included treatment of cardiovascular disease risk factors by NPHWs using tablet computer-based simplified management algorithms and counselling programmes; free antihypertensive and statin medications recommended by NPHWs but supervised by physicians; and support from a family member or friend (treatment supporter) to improve adherence to medications and healthy behaviours. The primary outcome was the change in FraminghamRisk Score 10-year cardiovascular disease risk estimate at 12 months between intervention and control participants. The HOPE 4 trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01826019. Findings All communities completed 12-month follow-up (data on 97% of living participants, n= 1299). The reduction in Framingham Risk Score for 10-year cardiovascular disease risk was -6.40% (95% CI 8.00 to -4.80) in the control group and -11.17% (-12.88 to -9.47) in the intervention group, with a difference of change of -4.78% (95% CI -7.11 to -2.44, p 0.0001). There was an absolute 11.45 mm Hg (95% CI -14.94 to -7.97) greater reduction in systolic blood pressure, and a 0.41 mmol/L (95% CI -0.60 to -0.23) reduction in LDL with the intervention group (both p 0.0001). Change in blood pressure control status ( 140 mm Hg) was 69% in the intervention group versus 30% in the control group (p 0.0001). There were no safety concerns with the intervention. Interpretation A comprehensive model of care led by NPHWs, involving primary care physicians and family that was informed by local context, substantially improved blood pressure control and cardiovascular disease risk. This strategy is effective, pragmatic, and has the potential to substantially reduce cardiovascular disease compared with current strategies that are typically physician based. Copyright (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Título según WOS: ID WOS:000488862500028 Not found in local WOS DB
Título de la Revista: LANCET
Volumen: 394
Número: 10205
Editorial: Elsevier Science Inc.
Fecha de publicación: 2019
Página de inicio: 1231
Página final: 1242


Notas: ISI