The sirtuin pathway in ageing and Alzheimer disease: mechanistic and therapeutic considerations

Bonda, David J.; Lee, Hyoung-gon; Camins, Antoni; Pallas, Merce; Casadesus, Gemma; Smith, Mark A.; Zhu, Xiongwei


Background Advances in gerontology have yielded crucial insights into the molecular and biochemical aspects of the ageing process. The sirtuin pathway, which is most notable for its association with the anti-ageing effects of calorie restriction, has received particular attention, and pharmacological or transgenic upregulation of the sirtuin pathway has shown promising results in laboratory models of ageing. Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disease that is imposing an increasing burden on society, and is the leading cause of senile dementia worldwide. The lack of therapies for Alzheimer's disease provides a strong incentive for the development of an effective treatment strategy and, interestingly, research has uncovered a mechanism of action of the sirtuin pathway that might have therapeutic potential for Alzheimer's disease. Recent developments SIRT1, one of the seven mammalian proteins of the sirtuin family of NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases, has recently been shown to attenuate amyloidogenic processing of amyloid-beta protein precursor (APP) in cell culture studies in vitro and in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease. Mechanistically, SIRT1 increases alpha-secretase production and activity through activation of the alpha-secretase gene ADAM10. Because alpha-secretase is the enzyme responsible for the non-amyloidogenic cleavage of APP, upregulation of alpha-secretase shifts APP processing to reduce the pathological accumulation of the presumptive toxic Aft species that results from beta-secretase and gamma-secretase activity. Interestingly, the. spatial patterns of Aft deposition in the brain might correlate with increased aerobic glycolysis in those regions. Because aerobic glycolysis depletes cellular levels of NAD(+) (through a decreased NAD(+)/NADH ratio), it is possible that a corresponding downregulation of the NAD(+)-dependent sirtuin pathway contributes to the amyloidogenic processing of APP. Where next? The specific inhibition of Aft generation by SIRT1 coupled with the potential link between aerobic glycolysis, NAD(+) depletion, and amyloidogenesis through the sirtuin pathway has translational implications. On the one hand, the possible underlying role of the sirtuin pathway in Alzheimer's disease onset and development might increase our understanding of this devastating condition. On the other hand, therapeutic upregulation of SIRT1 might provide opportunities for the amelioration of Alzheimer's-disease-type neuropathology through inhibition of amyloidogenesis. Ultimately, further analysis into both aspects is necessary if any progress is to be made.

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Título según WOS: ID WOS:000288482200015 Not found in local WOS DB
Título de la Revista: LANCET NEUROLOGY
Volumen: 10
Número: 3
Editorial: Elsevier Science Inc.
Fecha de publicación: 2011
Página de inicio: 275
Página final: 279


Notas: ISI