Inecalcitol, an analog of 1,25D(3), displays enhanced antitumor activity through the induction of apoptosis in a squamous cell carcinoma model system

Ma, Yingyu; Yu, Wei-Dong; Hidalgo, Alejandro A.; Luo, Wei; Delansorne, Remi; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald L.


Epidemiological data suggest an important role of vitamin D signaling in cancer development and progression, and experimental studies demonstrate that the active vitamin D metabolite 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D-3 (1,25D(3)) has broad spectrum antitumor activity. Hypercalcemia has often been suggested to limit the clinical application of these data. The 14-epi-analog of 1,25D(3), inecalcitol [19-nor-14-epi-23-yne-1,25-(OH)(2)D-3; TX522], was developed to have superagonistic antitumor activities but low hypercalcemia potential. We examined the antitumor activity of inecalcitol and the underlying mechanisms in a murine squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) model system. In vitro, compared with 1,25D(3), inecalcitol showed enhanced vitamin D receptor (VDR)-mediated transcriptional activity. Inecalcitol suppressed SCC cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 value 30 times lower than that of 1,25D(3). Both inecalcitol and 1,25D(3) induced a comparable level of G(0)/G(1) cell cycle arrest in SCC cells. The level of apoptosis induced by inecalcitol was markedly higher than that of 1,25D(3). Apoptosis was mediated through the activation of the caspase 8/10-caspase 3 pathway. Further, inecalcitol markedly inhibited the mRNA and protein expression of c-IAP1 and XIAP compared with 1,25D(3). In vivo, inecalcitol inhibits SCC tumor growth in a dose-dependent fashion. Notably, inecalcitol induced a significantly higher level of apoptosis in the SCC xenograft model. While in vitro inecalcitol demonstrates apparent enhanced VDR binding and antiproliferative effects compared to 1,25D(3), in vivo these advantages disappear; at doses of inecalcitol that have equivalent antitumor effects, similar hypercalcemia is seen. This may be explained by the pharmacokinetics of 1,25D(3) vs. inecalcitol and attributed to the much shorter serum half-life of inecalcitol. We show that inecalcitol has potent antitumor activity in the SCC model system, and this is associated with a strong induction of apoptosis. These findings support the further development of inecalcitol in cancer treatment.

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Título según WOS: ID WOS:000315522200012 Not found in local WOS DB
Título de la Revista: CELL CYCLE
Volumen: 12
Número: 5
Fecha de publicación: 2013
Página de inicio: 743
Página final: 752


Notas: ISI