Interdependency of regulatory effects of iron and riboflavin in the foodborne pathogen Shigella flexneri determined by integral transcriptomics

Lozano-Aguirre, Luis; Salazar, Juan Carlos; Vásquez, José I.; Garcia-Angulo, Victor A.


Shigella flexneri is the causative agent of dysentery. For pathogens, iron is a critical micronutrient as its bioavailability is usually low in bacterial niches. This metal is involved in critical physiological processes mainly as component of important metabolic molecules involved in redox reactions. Usually, bacteria respond to fluctuations in iron availability to regulate iron acquisition and other iron-related functions. Recently, a close metabolic feedback between iron and riboflavin, another pivotal biological redox agent, began to draw attention in bacteria. This is a ubiquitous biological phenomenon partly characterized by the coordination of regulatory responses to iron and riboflavin, probably owed to the involvement of these cofactors in common processes. Nonetheless, no systematic analyses to determine the extent of this regulatory effect have been performed in any species. Here, the transcriptomics responses to iron, riboflavin, iron in the presence of riboflavin and riboflavin in the presence of iron were assessed and compared in S. flexneri. The riboflavin regulon had a 43% overlap with that of iron. Notably, the presence of riboflavin highly increased the number of iron-responsive genes. Reciprocally, iron drastically changed the pool of riboflavin-responsive genes. Gene ontology (GO) functional terms enrichment analysis showed that biological processes were distinctively enriched for each subgroup of responsive genes. Among the biological processes regulated by iron and riboflavin were iron uptake, amino acids metabolism and electron transfer for ATP synthesis. Thus, iron and riboflavin highly affect the transcriptomics responses induced by each other in S. flexneri. GO terms analysis suggests that iron and riboflavin coordinately regulate specific physiological functions involving redox metabolism.

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Título de la Revista: PEERJ
Editorial: PEERJ INC
Fecha de publicación: 2020
Idioma: English
Financiamiento/Sponsor: Hoyles, Lesley