Sticholysin II-mediated cytotoxicity involves the activation of regulated intracellular responses that anticipates cell death

Soto, Carmen; Bergado, Gretchen; Blanco, Rances; Grinan, Tania; Rodriguez, Hermis; Ros, Uris; Pazos, Fabiola; Eliana Lanio, Maria; Maria Hernandez, Ana; Alvarez, Carlos


Sticholysin II (StII) is a pore-forming toxin of biomedical interest that belongs to the actinoporin protein family. Sticholysins are currently under examination as an active immunomodulating component of a vaccinal platform against tumoral cells and as a key element of a nucleic acids delivery system to cell cytosol. These proteins form pores in the plasma membrane leading to ion imbalance and cell lysis. However, the intracellular mechanisms triggered by actinoporins upon binding to membranes and its consequences for cell death are barely understood. Here, we have examined the cytotoxicity and intracellular responses induced by StII upon binding to human B-cell lymphoma Raji in vitro. StII cytotoxicity involves a functional actin cytoskeleton, induces cellular swelling, lysis and the concomitant release of cytosol content. In addition, StII induces calcium release mainly from the Endoplasmic Reticulum, activates Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase ERK and impairs mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, StII stimulates the expression of receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIP1), normally related to different forms of regulated cell death such as apoptosis and necroptosis. In correspondence, necrostatin-1, an inhibitor of this kinase, reduces StII cytotoxicity. However, the mechanism of cell death activated by StII does not involve caspases activation, typical molecular features of apoptosis and pyroptosis. Our results suggest that, beyond pore-formation and cell lysis, StII-induced cytotoxicity could involve other regulated intracellular mechanisms connected to RIP1-MEK1/2-ERK1/2- pathways. This opens new perspectives and challenges the general point of view that these toxins induce a completely unregulated mechanism of necrotic cell death. This study contributes to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in toxin-cell interaction and the implications for cell functioning, with connotation for the exploitations of these toxins in clinical settings. (c) 2018 Elsevier B.V. and Societe Francaise de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

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Título según WOS: ID WOS:000434051800003 Not found in local WOS DB
Título de la Revista: BIOCHIMIE
Volumen: 148
Fecha de publicación: 2018
Página de inicio: 18
Página final: 35


Notas: ISI