Antifungal Effects of Drimane Sesquiterpenoids Isolated from Drimys winteri against Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici
Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici is a soilborne pathogen that causes "take-all" disease, affecting cereal roots. In wheat, G. graminis var. tritici is the most important biotic factor, causing around 30 to 50% losses of yield. Chemical control of this fungal disease is difficult because G. graminis var. tritici is able to reside for a long time in soils. Therefore, the development of environmentally friendly biotechnological strategies to diminish the incidence of soilborne diseases is highly desirable. Natural products are a promising strategy for biocontrol of plant pathogens. A special emphasis is on medicinal plants due to their reported fungitoxic effects. Drimys winteri (canelo) is a medicinal plant that is widely used by the Mapuche ethnic group from Chile due to its anti-inflammatory activity. In addition, inhibitory effects of canelo against phytopathogenic fungi and pest insects have been reported. In this study, we isolated, purified, and identified six drimane sesquiterpenoid compounds from canelo (drimenin, drimenol, polygodial, isodrimeninol, valdiviolide, and drimendiol). Then, we evaluated their antimicrobial effects against G. graminis var. tritici. Compounds were identified by comparing Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) data and the retention time in thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with those of pure standards. The putative antagonistic effects were confirmed by assessing hyphal cell wall damage using confocal microscopy and lipid peroxidation. Here, we reported the high potential of drimane sesquiterpenoids as natural antifungals against G. graminis var. tritici. Polygodial and isodrimeninol were the most effective, with 50% lethal concentrations (LC50S) between 7 and 10 mu g ml(-1) and higher levels of fungal lipid peroxidation seen. Accordingly, natural sesquiterpenoids purified from canelo are biologically active against G. graminis var. tritici and could be used as natural biofungicides for sustainable agriculture. IMPORTANCE More than two billion tons of pesticides are used every year worldwide. An interesting sustainable alternative to control plant pathogens is the use of natural products obtained from plants, mainly medicinal plants that offer secondary metabolites important to human/animal health. In this study, we isolated and identified six pure drimane sesquiterpenoids obtained from the bark of Drimys winteri. Additionally, we evaluated their antifungal activities against Gaeumannomyces graminis (the main biotic factor affecting cereal production, especially wheat) by assessing fungal cell wall damage and lipid peroxidation. The compounds obtained showed important antifungal properties against G. graminis var. tritici, mainly isodrimenol, which was the second-most-active compound after polygodial, with an LC50 against G. graminis var. tritici of around 9.5 mu g ml(-1). This information could be useful for the development of new natural or hemisynthetic antifungal agents against soilborne phytopathogens that could be used in green agriculture.
|Título según WOS:||ID WOS:000596591800018 Not found in local WOS DB|
|Título de la Revista:||APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY|
|Fecha de publicación:||2020|