Keep Calm and Survive: Adaptation Strategies to Energy Crisis in Fruit Trees under Root Hypoxia
Plants are permanently facing challenges imposed by the environment which, in the context of the current scenario of global climate change, implies a constant process of adaptation to survive and even, in the case of crops, at least maintain yield. O-2 deficiency at the rhizosphere level, i.e., root hypoxia, is one of the factors with the greatest impact at whole-plant level. At cellular level, this O-2 deficiency provokes a disturbance in the energy metabolism which has notable consequences on the yield of plant crops. In this sense, although several physiological studies describe processes involved in plant adaptation to root hypoxia in woody fruit trees, with emphasis on the negative impacts on photosynthetic rate, there are very few studies that include -omics strategies for specifically understanding these processes in the roots of such species. Through a de novo assembly approach, a comparative transcriptome study of waterlogged Prunus spp. genotypes contrasting in their tolerance to root hypoxia was revisited in order to gain a deeper insight into the reconfiguration of pivotal pathways involved in energy metabolism. This re-analysis describes the classically altered pathways seen in the roots of woody fruit trees under hypoxia, but also routes that link them to pathways involved with nitrogen assimilation and the maintenance of cytoplasmic pH and glycolytic flow. In addition, the effects of root hypoxia on the transcription of genes related to the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system, responsible for providing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to the cell, are discussed in terms of their roles in the energy balance, reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism and aerenchyma formation. This review compiles key findings that help to explain the trait of tolerance to root hypoxia in woody fruit species, giving special attention to their strategies for managing the energy crisis. Finally, research challenges addressing less-explored topics in recovery and stress memory in woody fruit trees are pointed out.
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|Keep Calm and Survive: Adaptation Strategies to Energy Crisis in Fruit Trees under Root Hypoxia
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