Transforming Non-Selective Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors in C- and N-domain Selective Inhibitors by Using Computational Tools

Alfaro, Sergio; Navarro-Retamal, Carlos; Caballero, Julio

Abstract

The two-domain dipeptidykarboxypeptidase Angiotensin-l-converting enzyme (EC 3.4.15.1; ACE) plays an important physiological role in blood pressure regulation via the reninangiotensin and kallikrein-kinin systems by converting angiotensin I to the potent vasoconstrictor angiotensin II. and by cleaving a number of other substrates including the vasodilator bradykinin and the anti-inflammatory peptide N-acetyl-SDKP. Therefore, the design of ACE inhibitors is within the priorities of modern medical sciences for treating hypertension, heart failures, myocardial infarction, and other related diseases. Despite the success of ACE inhibitors for the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure, they have some adverse effects, which could be attenuated by selective domain inhibition. Crystal structures of both ACE domains (nACE and cACE) reported over the last decades could facilitate the rational drug design of selective inhibitors. In this review, we refer to the history of the discovery of ACE inhibitors, which has been strongly related to the development of molecular modeling methods. We stated that the design of novel selective ACE inhibitors is a challenge for current researchers which requires a thorough understanding of the structure of both ACE domains and the help of molecular modeling methodologies. Finally, we performed a theoretical design of potential selective derivatives of trandolaprilat, a drug approved to treat critical conditions of hypertension, to illustrate how to use molecular modeling methods such as de novo design, docking, Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations, and free energy calculations for creating novel potential drugs with specific interactions inside nACE and cACE binding sites.

Más información

Título según WOS: ID WOS:000565091000008 Not found in local WOS DB
Título de la Revista: MINI-REVIEWS IN MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY
Volumen: 20
Número: 14
Editorial: BENTHAM SCIENCE PUBL LTD
Fecha de publicación: 2020
Página de inicio: 1436
Página final: 1446
DOI:

10.2174/1389557520666191224113830

Notas: ISI