Effects of Short-Chain Fatty Acids on Human Oral Epithelial Cells and the Potential Impact on Periodontal Disease: A Systematic Review of In Vitro Studies

Magrin, Gabriel Leonardo; Strauss, Franz Josef; Benfatti, Cesar Augusto Magalhaes; Maia, Lucianne Cople; Gruber, Reinhard

Abstract

Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), bacterial metabolites released from dental biofilm, are supposed to target the oral epithelium. There is, however, no consensus on how SCFA affect the oral epithelial cells. The objective of the present study was to systematically review the available in vitro evidence of the impact of SCFA on human oral epithelial cells in the context of periodontal disease. A comprehensive electronic search using five databases along with a grey literature search was performed. In vitro studies that evaluated the effects of SCFA on human oral epithelial cells were eligible for inclusion. Risk of bias was assessed by the University of Bristol's tool for assessing risk of bias in cell culture studies. Certainty in cumulative evidence was evaluated using GRADE criteria (grading of recommendations assessment, development, and evaluation). Of 3591 records identified, 10 were eligible for inclusion. A meta-analysis was not possible due to the heterogeneity between the studies. The risk of bias across the studies was considered "serious" due to the presence of methodological biases. Despite these limitations, this review showed that SCFA negatively affect the viability of oral epithelial cells by activating a series of cellular events that includes apoptosis, autophagy, and pyroptosis. SCFA impair the integrity and presumably the transmigration of leucocytes through the epithelial layer by changing junctional and adhesion protein expression, respectively. SCFA also affect the expression of chemokines and cytokines in oral epithelial cells. Future research needs to identify the underlying signaling cascades and to translate the in vitro findings into preclinical models.

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Título según WOS: ID WOS:000558441000001 Not found in local WOS DB
Título de la Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
Volumen: 21
Número: 14
Editorial: MDPI
Fecha de publicación: 2020
DOI:

10.3390/ijms21144895

Notas: ISI