Biogeochemistry of plant essential mineral nutrients across rock, soil, water and fruits in vineyards of Central Chile
Essential mineral nutrients are key elements for the development and production of grapevines. Under natural conditions most nutrients have a lithogenic origin, however, in agroecosystems their contents and distribution can be greatly altered by anthropogenic additions. To assess the origin and contribution of lithogenic and anthropogenic nutrient sources, we studied the rock-soil-water-fruit interfase in four vineyards of Central Chile located in the sites of Casablanca, San Antonio, Santa Cruz and San Javier, which are characterized by contrasting geological, geomorphological, and mesoclimatic conditions as well as the magnitude of anthropogenic influence. Detailed mapping and soil characterization were carried out at each vineyard. Additionally, parent rock, soil, berries, rain, irrigation water and groundwater were sampled and the distribution and behavior of P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Na were studied. For berries, others elements such as N, S, B and Cl were considered. The geochemistry of soils was concordant with its lithological origin. However, Zn and Cu were dominantly anthropogenic due to atmospheric deposition and the use of agrochemicals. This was evidenced by their greater bioavailability in topsoil and by the chemistry of irrigation and rainwater. Across sites, berries displayed similar nutrient patterns by cultivar; K and S were concentrated in cv. Carmenere, while Ca, Mg and P were enriched in the cv. Pinot Noir. However, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu had a particular distribution at each plot, reflecting the unique interaction between environment, lithology, soil properties and viticultural practices. Factor Analysis showed a good correlation between soils and berries for K and +/- Na, Fe, Cu and Mg, which implies that soil composition was reflected in the composition of the berries. Since geochemical, geological and environmental influences on the chemistry of berries were recognized, it is proposed that interdisciplinary critical zone studies should be undertaken to improve the sustainability of vineyard management strategies.
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|Biogeochemistry of plant essential mineral nutrients across rock, soil, water and fruits in vineyards of Central Chile
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