Diffusible Compounds Produced by Hanseniaspora osmophila and Gluconobacter cerinus Help to Control the Causal Agents of Gray Rot and Summer Bunch Rot of Table Grapes
Keywords: antifungal compounds, fungal growth, biocontrol agents, in vitro inhibition
Gray and summer bunch rot are important diseases of table grapes due to the high economic and environmental cost of their control with synthetic fungicides. The ability to produce antifungal compounds against the causal agents Botrytis, Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Rhizopus of two microorganisms isolated from table grapes and identified as Hanseniaspora osmophila and Gluconobacter cerinus was evaluated. In dual cultures, both biocontrol agents (together and separately) inhibited in vitro mycelial growth of these pathogens. To identify the compounds responsible for the inhibitory effect, extractions were carried out with organic solvents from biocontrol agents separately. Through dual cultures with pathogens and pure extracts, only the hexane extract from H. osmophila showed an inhibitory effect against Botrytis cinerea. To further identify these compounds, the direct bioautography technique was used. This technique made it possible to determine the band displaying antifungal activity at Rf = 0.05–0.2. The compounds present in this band were identified by GC-MS and compared to the NIST library. The most abundant compounds, not previously reported, corresponded to alkanes, ketones, alcohols, and terpenoids. H. osmophila and G. cerinus have the potential to control the causal agents of gray and summer bunch rot of table grapes.
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