A heat-shocked melanoma cell lysate vaccine enhances tumor infiltration by prototypic effector T cells inhibiting tumor growth

Gleisner, Maria Alejandra; Pereda, Cristian; Tittarelli, Andres; Navarrete, Mariela; Fuentes, Camila; avalos, Ignacio; Tempio, Fabian; Araya, Juan Pablo; Becker, Maria Ines; Gonzalez, Fermin Eduardo; Lopez, Mercedes Natalia; Salazar-Onfray, Flavio

Abstract

Background Immune checkpoint blocker (ICB) therapy has shown survival benefits for some patients with cancer. Nevertheless, many individuals remain refractory or acquire resistance to treatment, motivating the exploration of complementary immunotherapies. Accordingly, cancer vaccines offer an attractive alternative. Optimal delivery of multiple tumor-associated antigens combined with potent adjuvants seems to be crucial for vaccine effectiveness. Methods Here, a prototype for a generic melanoma vaccine, named TRIMELVax, was tested using B16F10 mouse melanoma model. This vaccine is made of heat shock-treated tumor cell lysates combined with theConcholepas concholepashemocyanin as adjuvant. Results While B16F10 lysate provides appropriate melanoma-associated antigens, both a generic human melanoma cell lysate and hemocyanin adjuvant contributes with danger signals promoting conventional dendritic type 1 cells (cDC1), activation, phagocytosis and effective antigen cross-presentation. TRIMELVax inhibited tumor growth and increased mice survival, inducing cellular and humoral immune responses. Furthermore, this vaccine generated an increased frequency of intratumor cDC1s but not conventional type 2 dendritic cells (cDC2s). Augmented infiltration of CD3(+), CD4(+)and CD8(+)T cells was also observed, compared with anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) monotherapy, while TRIMELVax/anti-PD-1 combination generated higher tumor infiltration of CD4(+)T cells. Moreover, TRIMELVax promoted an augmented proportion of PD-1(lo)CD8(+)T cells in tumors, a phenotype associated with prototypic effector cells required for tumor growth control, preventing dysfunctional T-cell accumulation. Conclusions The therapeutic vaccine TRIMELVax efficiently controls the weakly immunogenic and aggressive B16F10 melanoma tumor growth, prolonging tumor-bearing mice survival even in the absence of ICB. The strong immunogenicity shown by TRIMELVax encourages clinical studies in patients with melanoma.

Más información

Título según WOS: ID WOS:000555407200001 Not found in local WOS DB
Título de la Revista: JOURNAL FOR IMMUNOTHERAPY OF CANCER
Volumen: 8
Número: 2
Editorial: BMJ Publishing Group
Fecha de publicación: 2020
DOI:

10.1136/jitc-2020-000999

Notas: ISI