Cholinergic Receptor Modulation as a Target for Preventing Dementia in Parkinson's Disease

Iarkov, Alexandre; Mendoza, Cristhian; Echeverria, Valentina


Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) in the midbrain resulting in progressive impairment in cognitive and motor abilities. The physiological and molecular mechanisms triggering dopaminergic neuronal loss are not entirely defined. PD occurrence is associated with various genetic and environmental factors causing inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction in the brain, leading to oxidative stress, proteinopathy, and reduced viability of dopaminergic neurons. Oxidative stress affects the conformation and function of ions, proteins, and lipids, provoking mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation and dysfunction. The disruption of protein homeostasis induces the aggregation of alpha-synuclein (alpha-SYN) and parkin and a deficit in proteasome degradation. Also, oxidative stress affects dopamine release by activating ATP-sensitive potassium channels. The cholinergic system is essential in modulating the striatal cells regulating cognitive and motor functions. Several muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are expressed in the striatum. The nAChRs signaling reduces neuroinflammation and facilitates neuronal survival, neurotransmitter release, and synaptic plasticity. Since there is a deficit in the nAChRs in PD, inhibiting nAChRs loss in the striatum may help prevent dopaminergic neurons loss in the striatum and its pathological consequences. The nAChRs can also stimulate other brain cells supporting cognitive and motor functions. This review discusses the cholinergic system as a therapeutic target of cotinine to prevent cognitive symptoms and transition to dementia in PD.

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Título según WOS: Cholinergic Receptor Modulation as a Target for Preventing Dementia in Parkinson's Disease
Volumen: 15
Fecha de publicación: 2021
Notas: ISI