The Emerging Role of PIWI-Interacting RNAs (piRNAs) in Gastrointestinal Cancers: An Updated Perspective

Riquelme, Ismael; Perez-Moreno, Pablo; Letelier, Pablo; Brebi, Priscilla; Roa, Juan Carlos

Abstract

Simple Summary Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers are high mortality malignancies due to late diagnosis, the presence of metastasis and drug resistance development. Novel and more reliable biomarkers and therapeutic targets are still needed for these diseases. PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are small transcripts that are involve in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis and have been proposed as promising diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers and as potential therapeutic targets in these malignancies. This review describes important topics about piRNAs including their molecular characteristics, biosynthesis processes, gene expression silencing mechanisms, and the manner in which these transcripts have been studied in samples and cell lines of GI cancers. In addition, this article discusses the potential clinical usefulness of piRNAs as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in GI cancers. Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers produce ~3.4 million related deaths worldwide, comprising 35% of all cancer-related deaths. The high mortality among GI cancers is due to late diagnosis, the presence of metastasis and drug resistance development. Additionally, current clinical markers do not adequately guide patient management, thereby new and more reliable biomarkers and therapeutic targets are still needed for these diseases. RNA-seq technology has allowed the discovery of new types of RNA transcripts including PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), which have particular characteristics that enable these molecules to act via diverse molecular mechanisms for regulating gene expression. Cumulative evidence has described the potential role of piRNAs in the development of several tumor types as a likely explanation for certain genomic abnormalities and signaling pathways' deregulations observed in cancer. In addition, these piRNAs might be also proposed as promising diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers or as potential therapeutic targets in malignancies. This review describes important topics about piRNAs including their molecular characteristics, biosynthesis processes, gene expression silencing mechanisms, and the manner in which these transcripts have been studied in samples and cell lines of GI cancers to elucidate their implications in these diseases. Moreover, this article discusses the potential clinical usefulness of piRNAs as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in GI cancers.

Más información

Título según WOS: ID WOS:000752575600001 Not found in local WOS DB
Título de la Revista: CANCERS
Volumen: 14
Número: 1
Editorial: MDPI
Fecha de publicación: 2022
DOI:

10.3390/cancers14010202

Notas: ISI