Environmental and Lifestyle Risk Factors in the Carcinogenesis of Gallbladder Cancer
Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an aggressive neoplasm that in an early stage is generally asymptomatic and, in most cases, is diagnosed in advanced stages with a very low life expectancy because there is no curative treatment. Therefore, understanding the early carcinogenic mechanisms of this pathology is crucial to proposing preventive strategies for this cancer. The main risk factor is the presence of gallstones, which are associated with some environmental factors such as a sedentary lifestyle and a high-fat diet. Other risk factors such as autoimmune disorders and bacterial, parasitic and fungal infections have also been described. All these factors can generate a long-term inflammatory state characterized by the persistent activation of the immune system, the frequent release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and the constant production of reactive oxygen species that result in a chronic damage/repair cycle, subsequently inducing the loss of the normal architecture of the gallbladder mucosa that leads to the development of GBC. This review addresses how the different risk factors could promote a chronic inflammatory state essential to the development of gallbladder carcinogenesis, which will make it possible to define some strategies such as anti-inflammatory drugs or public health proposals in the prevention of GBC.
|Título según WOS:||ID WOS:000763731500001 Not found in local WOS DB|
|Título de la Revista:||JOURNAL OF PERSONALIZED MEDICINE|
|Fecha de publicación:||2022|