Characterization of dense Planck clumps observed with Herschel and SCUBA-2

Mannfors, E., Juvela, M., Bronfman, L. et al.

Keywords: dust, extinction, stars: formation, ism: clouds, methods: observational, infrared: ism, ism: general, Astrophysics - Astrophysics of Galaxies


Context. Although the basic processes of star formation (SF) are known, more research is needed on SF across multiple scales and environments. The Planck all-sky survey provided a large catalog of Galactic cold clouds and clumps that have been the target of several follow-up surveys. Aims: We aim to characterize a diverse selection of dense, potentially star-forming cores, clumps, and clouds within the Milky Way in terms of their dust emission and SF activity. Methods: We studied 53 fields that have been observed in the JCMT SCUBA-2 continuum survey SCOPE and have been mapped with Herschel. We estimated dust properties by fitting Herschel observations with modified blackbody functions, studied the relationship between dust temperature and dust opacity spectral index β, and estimated column densities. We extracted clumps from the SCUBA-2 850 μm maps with the FellWalker algorithm and examined their masses and sizes. Clumps are associated with young stellar objects found in several catalogs. We estimated the gravitational stability of the clumps with virial analysis. The clumps are categorized as unbound starless, prestellar, or protostellar. Results: We find 529 dense clumps, typically with high column densities from (0.3-4.8) × 1022 cm−2, with a mean of (1.5 ± 0.04) ×1022 cm−2, low temperatures (T ∼ 10-20 K), and estimated submillimeter β = 1.7 ± 0.1. We detect a slight increase in opacity spectral index toward millimeter wavelengths. Masses of the sources range from 0.04 M⊙ to 4259 M⊙. Mass, linear size, and temperature are correlated with distance. Furthermore, the estimated gravitational stability is dependent on distance, and more distant clumps appear more virially bound. Finally, we present a catalog of properties of the clumps. Conclusions: Our sources present a large array of SF regions, from high-latitude, nearby diffuse clouds to large SF complexes near the Galactic center. Analysis of these regions will continue with the addition of molecular line data, which will allow us to study the densest regions of the clumps in more detail.

Más información

Título de la Revista: Astronomy & Astrophysics
Volumen: 654
Número: Article
Fecha de publicación: 2021
Página de inicio: 123
Página final: 176
Idioma: Inglés
Notas: ISI