An ALMA study of outflow parameters of protoclusters: outflow feedback to maintain the turbulence

T. Baug, Ke Wang, Tie Liu, Yue-Fang Wu, Di Li, Qizhou Zhang, Mengyao Tang, Paul F Goldsmith, Hong-Li Liu, Anandmayee Tej, Leonardo Bronfman,

Keywords: stars: formation, ism: clouds, radio lines: ism, ism: jets and outflows


With the aim of understanding the role of outflows in star formation, we performed a statistical study of the physical parameters of outflows in 11 massive protoclusters associated with ultracompact H ii regions. A total of 106 outflow lobes are identified in these protoclusters using the ALMA CO (3–2), HCN (4–3), and HCO+ (4–3) line observations. Although the position angles of outflow lobes do not differ in these three tracers, HCN and HCO+ tend to detect lower terminal velocity of the identified outflows compared to CO. The majority of the outflows in our targets are young with typical dynamical time-scales of 102–104 yr, and are mostly composed of low-mass outflows along with at least one high-mass outflow in each target. An anticorrelation of outflow rate with dynamical time-scale indicates that the outflow rate possibly decreases with time. Also, a rising trend of dynamical time-scale with the mass of the associated core hints that the massive cores might have longer accretion histories than the low-mass cores. Estimation of different energies in these protoclusters shows that outflows studied here cannot account for the generation of the observed turbulence, but can sustain the turbulence at the current epoch as the energy injection rate from the outflows is similar to the estimated dissipation rate.

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Volumen: 507, Issue 3
Número: Article
Editorial: Oxford Academic
Fecha de publicación: 2021
Página de inicio: 4316
Página final: 4334
Idioma: Inglés
Notas: ISI