An Update of Anthraquinone Derivatives Emodin, Diacerein, and Catenarin in Diabetes

Martorell, Miquel; Castro, Natalia; Victoriano, Montserrat; Capo, Xavier; Tejada, Silvia; Vitalini, Sara; Pezzani, Raffaele; Sureda, Antoni


Diabetes is part of metabolic diseases and is characterized by high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period as result of an insulin-deficient production or an inappropriate response to insulin by our cells. This chronic disease was the direct cause of 1.6 million deaths in 2016 as reported by the World Health Organization. Emodin is a natural product and active ingredient of various Chinese herbs with the chemical formula 1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone. Diacerein is another naturally occurring anthraquinone (1,8-diacetoxy-3-carboxyanthraquinone) commonly used as commercial drug to treat osteoarthritis. These two anthraquinone derivatives have been shown to exert antidiabetic activities. Emodin seems to enhance the glucose tolerance and insulin sensibility via activation of PPAR gamma and modulation of metabolic-related genes. Diacerein seems to decrease inflammatory cytokines and increase insulin secretion enhancing insulin sensibility and therefore improving glucose control. Other naturally occurring anthraquinone derivatives, such as catenarin (1,4,6,8-tetrahydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone), have been shown to have antidiabetic activities although few studies have been performed. The synthesis of new emodin derivatives is increasing, but these new molecules have not been tested for diabetes treatment. In the current work, available literature on anthraquinone derivatives' effects in diabetes disease is reviewed. Moreover, we discuss the chemistry, food sources, bioavailability, and toxicity of the naturally occurring anthraquinone with antidiabetic effects.

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Título según WOS: An Update of Anthraquinone Derivatives Emodin, Diacerein, and Catenarin in Diabetes
Volumen: 2021
Editorial: HINDAWI LTD
Fecha de publicación: 2021


Notas: ISI