Hybrid magnetron sputtering of ceramic superlattices for application in a next generation of combustion engines
A hybrid magnetron sputtering process (dcMS/HiPIMS) was developed to manufacture nanostructured CrN/Cr1-xAlxN multilayers, motivated by improving the low-emission efficiency when applied on gas-nitrided diesel piston rings of a next-generation of combustion engines. In order to improve the mechanical, tribological, and corrosion behavior of the multilayers, the hybrid dcMS/HiPIMS process was designed by selecting the optimal sputtering procedure applied to AISI 440 base steel. The effect of substrate bias and carousel rotational speed on the phase composition, crystallographic texture, residual stresses, surface roughness, coating periodicity and densification, instrumented hardness, elastic modulus, as well as wear and corrosion resistance was determined. The results have demonstrated that hybrid magnetron sputtering produces multilayers with a superlattice structure, which outperforms commercial PVD coatings of CrN for diesel piston rings manufactured by cathodic arc evaporation. Also, multilayer periodicities in the range of 5 to 10 nm yield the best tribological performance under bench tests for the piston ring/cylinder liner system.
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|Hybrid magnetron sputtering of ceramic superlattices for application in a next generation of combustion engines
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