Apocynin Treatment Prevents Cardiac Connexin 43 Hemichannels Hyperactivity by Reducing Nitroso-Redox Stress in Mdx Mice
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal disease that causes cardiomyopathy and is associated with oxidative stress. In the heart, oxidative stress interferes with the location of connexin 43 (Cx43) to the intercalated discs causing its lateralization to the plasma membrane where Cx43 forms hemichannels. We tested the hypothesis that in DMD cardiomyopathy, increased oxidative stress is associated with the formation and activation of Cx43 hemichannels. For this, we used mdx mice as a DMD model and evaluated cardiac function, nitroso-redox changes and Cx43 hemichannels permeability. Mdx hearts presented increased NADPH oxidase-derived oxidative stress and increased Cx43 S-nitrosylation compared to controls. These redox changes were associated with increased Cx43 lateralization, decreased cardiac contractility and increased arrhythmic events. Pharmacological inhibition of NADPH oxidase using apocynin (one month) reduced systemic oxidative stress and reversed the aforementioned changes towards normal, except Cx43 lateralization. Opening of Cx43 hemichannels was blocked by apocynin treatment and by acute hemichannel blockade with carbenoxolone. NADPH oxidase inhibition also prevented the occurrence of apoptosis in mdx hearts and reversed the ventricular remodeling. These results show that NADPH oxidase activity in DMD is associated with S-nitrosylation and opening of Cx43 hemichannels. These changes lead to apoptosis and cardiac dysfunction and were prevented by NADPH oxidase inhibition.
|Título según WOS:
|Apocynin Treatment Prevents Cardiac Connexin 43 Hemichannels Hyperactivity by Reducing Nitroso-Redox Stress in Mdx Mice
|Título de la Revista:
|INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
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