Proteomic and toxicological analysis of the response of dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella to changes in NaNO3 concentration

Saldivia, Pablo; Hernandez, Mauricio; Islas, A; Fritz R.; Varela D.; Gonzalez-Jartín J N; Figueroa J.; Botana L M; Vargas C.; Yanez, Alejandro Javier


Dinoflagellates of the genus Alexandrium cause Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) in coastal waters worldwide, damaging marine environments, aquaculture, and human health. They synthesize potent neurotoxic alkaloids known as PSTs (i.e., Paralytic Shellfish Toxins), the etiological agents of PSP (i.e., Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning). In recent decades, the eutrophication of coastal waters with inorganic nitrogen (e.g., nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia) has increased the frequency and scale of HABs. PSTs concentrations within Alexandrium cells can increase by up to 76% after a nitrogen enrichment event; however, the mechanisms that underlie their biosynthesis in dinoflagellates remains unclear. This study combines mass spectrometry, bioinformatics, and toxicology and investigates the expression profiles of PSTs in Alexandrium catenella grown in 0.4, 0.9 and 1.3 mM NaNO3. Pathway analysis of protein expression revealed that tRNA amino acylation, glycolysis, TCA cycle and pigment biosynthesis were upregulated in 0.4 mM and downregulated in 1.3 mM NaNO3 compared to those grown in 0.9 mM NaNO3. Conversely, ATP synthesis, photosynthesis and arginine biosynthesis were downregulated in 0.4 mM and upregulated in 1.3 mM NaNO3. Additionally, the expression of proteins involved in PST biosynthesis (sxtA, sxtG, sxtV, sxtW and sxtZ) and overall PST production like STX, NEO, C1, C2, GTX1-6 and dcGTX2 was higher at lower nitrate concentrations. Therefore, increased nitrogen concentrations increase protein synthesis, photosynthesis, and energy metabolism and decrease enzyme expression in PST biosynthesis and production. This research provides new clues about how the changes in the nitrate concentration can modulate different metabolic pathways and the expression of PST biosynthesis in toxigenic dinoflagellates.

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Título de la Revista: HARMFUL ALGAE
Volumen: 125
Editorial: Elsevier
Fecha de publicación: 2023
Página de inicio: 102428
Idioma: Ingles
Financiamiento/Sponsor: Sience Direct
Notas: WOS