A comprehensive review of emerging technologies for recycling spent lithium-ion batteries

Milian, Yanio E.; Jamett, Nathalie; Cruz, Constanza; Herrera-Leon, Sebastian; Chacana, Jaime O.


Along with the increasing demand for lithium-ion batteries (LIB), the need for recycling major components such as graphite and different critical materials contained in LIB is also reaching a peak in the research community. Several authors review the different LIB recycling methodologies, including pyro- and hydrometallurgy processes. However, the characteristics, main stages, and achievements of LIB emerging recycling are still missing. This study reviews the diverse emerging approaches for recycling critical materials from spent LIB in the last five years. A classification for emerging recycling technologies is provided, including terms like development stage and eco-friendly status. The main stages of recycling LIB are opening, phase separation, and materials recovery. Among the emerging proposals with the highest industrialization potential are direct recycling techniques due to low costs and simple procedures. Concerning phase separation, froth flotation and ultrasound-assisted methods are discussed. The former divides black mass into pure anodic and cathodic materials, while ultrasonication is employed to physically detach active materials from foils or enhance binder degradation. As to materials recovery, several recent approaches show high recovery efficiency for different elements, mainly in leaching. The use of new organic acids, deep eutectic acids, and some salts are worth noting as leaching agents due to their low environmental impact. In addition, leaching methods assisted by ultrasound and microwave irradiation increase valuable metal recovery, reducing time consumption and the number of leaching reactants. As a part of the hydrometallurgy process, metallic ion purification is performed by solvent extraction and ion exchange, while selective precipitation can be achieved by specific chemical agents or electrochemical processes.

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Volumen: 910
Editorial: Elsevier
Fecha de publicación: 2024
Idioma: English
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0048969723071711