Pharmacological Inhibition of p-21 Activated Kinase (PAK) Restores Impaired Neurite Outgrowth and Remodeling in a Cellular Model of Down Syndrome

Barraza-Nunez, Natalia; Perez-Nunez, Ramon; Gaete-Ramirez, Belen; Barrios-Garrido, Alejandra; Arriagada, Christian; Poksay, Karen; John, Varghese; Barnier, Jean-Vianney; Maria Cardenas, Ana; Caviedes, Pablo


Down syndrome (DS) is characterized by the trisomy of chromosome 21 and by cognitive deficits that have been related to neuronal morphological alterations in humans, as well as in animal models. The gene encoding for amyloid precursor protein (APP) is present in autosome 21, and its overexpression in DS has been linked to neuronal dysfunction, cognitive deficit, and Alzheimer's disease-like dementia. In particular, the neuronal ability to extend processes and branching is affected. Current evidence suggests that APP could also regulate neurite growth through its role in the actin cytoskeleton, in part by influencing p21-activated kinase (PAK) activity. The latter effect is carried out by an increased abundance of the caspase cleavage-released carboxy-terminal C31 fragment. In this work, using a neuronal cell line named CTb, which derived from the cerebral cortex of a trisomy 16 mouse, an animal model of human DS, we observed an overexpression of APP, elevated caspase activity, augmented cleavage of the C-terminal fragment of APP, and increased PAK1 phosphorylation. Morphometric analyses showed that inhibition of PAK1 activity with FRAX486 increased the average length of the neurites, the number of crossings per Sholl ring, the formation of new processes, and stimulated the loss of processes. Considering our results, we propose that PAK hyperphosphorylation impairs neurite outgrowth and remodeling in the cellular model of DS, and therefore we suggest that PAK1 may be a potential pharmacological target.

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Título según WOS: ID WOS:000943112300001 Not found in local WOS DB
Editorial: Springer
Fecha de publicación: 2023


Notas: ISI