Metal Recovery from Natural Saline Brines with an Electrochemical Ion Pumping Method Using Hexacyanoferrate Materials as Electrodes

Salazar-Avalos, Sebastian; Soliz, Alvaro; Caceres, Luis; Conejeros, Sergio; Brito, Ivan; Galvez, Edelmira; Galleguillos Madrid, Felipe M.


The electrochemical ion pumping device is a promising alternative for the development of the industry of recovering metals from natural sources-such as seawater, geothermal water, well brine, or reverse osmosis brine-using electrochemical systems, which is considered a non-evaporative process. This technology is potentially used for metals like Li, Cu, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Sr, and others that are mostly obtained from natural brine sources through a combination of pumping, solar evaporation, and solvent extraction steps. As the future demand for metals for the electronic industry increases, new forms of marine mining processing alternatives are being implemented. Unfortunately, both land and marine mining, such as off-shore and deep sea types, have great potential for severe environmental disruption. In this context, a green alternative is the mixing entropy battery, which is a promising technique whereby the ions are captured from a saline natural source and released into a recovery solution with low ionic force using intercalation materials such as Prussian Blue Analogue (PBA) to store cations inside its crystal structure. This new technique, called "electrochemical ion pumping", has been proposed for water desalination, lithium concentration, and blue energy recovery using the difference in salt concentration. The raw material for this technology is a saline solution containing ions of interest, such as seawater, natural brines, or industrial waste. In particular, six main ions of interest-Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, and SO42--are found in seawater, and they constitute 99.5% of the world's total dissolved salts. This manuscript provides relevant information about this new non-evaporative process for recovering metals from aqueous salty solutions using hexacianometals such as CuHCF, NiHCF, and CoHCF as electrodes, among others, for selective ion removal.

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Título según WOS: ID WOS:001078158900001 Not found in local WOS DB
Título de la Revista: Nanomaterials
Volumen: 13
Número: 18
Editorial: MDPI
Fecha de publicación: 2023


Notas: ISI