Reactions of aryl chlorothionoformates with quinuclidines. A kinetic study

Castro, EA; Aliaga M.; Campodonico, PR; Leis, JR; Garcia-Rio, L; Santos, JG


The reactions of quinuclidines with phenyl, 4-chlorophenyl, 4-cyanophenyl, and 4-nitrophenyl chlorothionoformates (1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively) are subjected to a kinetic study in aqueous solution, at 25.0°C, and an ionic strength of 0.2 M (KCl). The reactions are studied by following spectrophotometrically the release of the corresponding phenoxide anion/phenol generated in the parallel hydrolysis of the substrates. Under amine excess, pseudofirst-order rate coefficients (k obs) are found. Plots of k obs versus [amine] are linear, with slope k N. The Brønsted-type plots (log k N VS. pK a of aminium ions) are linear, with slopes β = 0.26, 0.22, 0.19, and 0.28 for the reactions with 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The magnitudes of the slopes indicate that these mechanisms are stepwise, with rate-determining formation of a zwitterionic tetrahedral intermediate [T ±). A dual parametric equation with the pK a of the nucleophiles and non-leaving groups show β N = 0.26 and β nlg = -0.16, also in accordance with the proposed mechanism. On the other hand, the reactivity of these thiocarbonyl substrates and their carbonyl derivatives was studied using their hardness index and compared with their experimental parameters, confirming the proposed mechanisms. By comparison of the title reactions with similar aminolyses, the following conclusions arise: (i) The mechanism of the reactions under investigation is stepwise with rate-determining formation of T ±. (ii) The reactivity of the substrates toward quinuclidines follows the order 4 > 3 > 2 > 1. (iii) Quinuclidines are more reactive than isobasic pyridines toward chlorothionoformates. (iv) Chlorothionoformates are less reactive than chloroformates towards quinuclidines in accordance with the HSAB principle, (v) The k N values for phenyl chloroformate and 4 can be correlated with the pK a of quinuclidines and also with the hardness values calculated by the HF/3-21G level of theory. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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Título según WOS: Reactions of aryl chlorothionoformates with quinuclidines. A kinetic study
Título según SCOPUS: Reactions of aryl chlorothionoformates with quinuclidines. A kinetic study
Volumen: 21
Número: 2
Editorial: Wiley
Fecha de publicación: 2008
Página de inicio: 102
Página final: 107
Idioma: English