In situ tests on inducible defenses in Dictyota kunthii and Macrocystis integrifolia (Phaeophyceae) from the Chilean coast
Numerous experimental studies have reported inducible defenses in macroalgae, but most of them have been conducted in laboratory environments where algae were maintained detached from the substratum and in artificial flow regimes. The results of those experiments might not reflect the natural situation, which can only be studied in situ. We examined whether the brown macroalgae Dictyota kunthii (C. Agardh) Greville and Macrocystis integrifolia (Bory) show inducible defenses following exposure to different grazing levels (direct, water-borne cues from nearby grazed conspecifics, presence of a non-grazing herbivore and natural grazing) in field experiments, striving to maintain natural conditions as much as possible. We measured palatability of algae after exposure to different grazing levels by using live algae and agar-based food containing non-polar extracts. M. integrifolia showed no induction of defenses (at least not of non-polar compounds), suggesting constitutive defenses, absence of defenses (tolerance) or use of another strategy to avoid herbivory. These results are similar to those from previous laboratory experiments. In D. kunthii, defense was induced after two weeks of direct grazing by amphipods under field conditions. Water-borne cues from nearby grazed conspecifics, presence of a non-grazing herbivore and natural grazing did not induce defenses. Induction of defense in response to direct grazing agrees with results from a previous laboratory study, but while indirect cues induced defenses in the laboratory, there was no measurable induced defense in the field. Probably chemical cues from grazers are diluted quickly in the field, not reaching concentrations that cause induction of defenses. This might be the reason why in some algae induction by direct grazing is a more important defensive strategy than induction by water-borne cues. The results from our study also suggest that laboratory experiments showing induced defenses in response to grazed neighbours or mere grazer presence need to be interpreted with caution. Â© 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
|Título según WOS:||In situ tests on inducible defenses in Dictyota kunthii and Macrocystis integrifolia (Phaeophyceae) from the Chilean coast|
|Título según SCOPUS:||In situ tests on inducible defenses in Dictyota kunthii and Macrocystis integrifolia (Phaeophyceae) from the Chilean coast|
|Título de la Revista:||JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MARINE BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY|
|Editorial:||ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV|
|Fecha de publicación:||2008|
|Página de inicio:||28|