Evaluation of Photobiomodulation and Boldine as Alternative Treatment Options in Two Diabetic Retinopathy Models

Garcia, Victor Calbiague; Cadiz, Barbara; Herrera, Pablo; Diaz, Alejandra; Schmachtenberg, Oliver

Abstract

Diabetic retinopathy causes progressive and irreversible damage to the retina through activation of inflammatory processes, overproduction of oxidative species, and glial reactivity, leading to changes in neuronal function and finally ischemia, edema, and hemorrhages. Current treatments are invasive and mostly applied at advanced stages, stressing the need for alternatives. To this end, we tested two unconventional and potentially complementary non-invasive treatment options: Photobiomodulation, the stimulation with near-infrared light, has shown promising results in ameliorating retinal pathologies and insults in several studies but remains controversial. Boldine, on the other hand, is a potent natural antioxidant and potentially useful to prevent free radical-induced oxidative stress. To establish a baseline, we first evaluated the effects of diabetic conditions on the retina with immunofluorescence, histological, and ultrastructural analysis in two diabetes model systems, obese LepR(db/db) mice and organotypic retinal explants, and then tested the potential benefits of photobiomodulation and boldine treatment in vitro on retinal explants subjected to high glucose concentrations, mimicking diabetic conditions. Our results suggest that the principal subcellular structures affected by these conditions were mitochondria in the inner segment of photoreceptors, which displayed morphological changes in both model systems. In retinal explants, lactate metabolism, assayed as an indicator of mitochondrial function, was altered, and decreased photoreceptor viability was observed, presumably as a consequence of increased oxidative-nitrosative stress. The latter was reduced by boldine treatment in vitro, while photobiomodulation improved mitochondrial metabolism but was insufficient to prevent retinal structural damage caused by high glucose. These results warrant further research into alternative and complementary treatment options for diabetic retinopathy.

Más información

Título según WOS: ID WOS:000987313300001 Not found in local WOS DB
Título de la Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
Volumen: 24
Número: 9
Editorial: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)
Fecha de publicación: 2023
DOI:

10.3390/ijms24097918

Notas: ISI