Reactive Oxygen Species Potentiate the P2X(2) Receptor Activity through Intracellular Cys(430)
P2X receptor channels (P2XRs) are allosterically modulated by several compounds, mainly acting at the ectodomain of the receptor. Like copper, mercury, a metal that induces oxidative stress in cells, also stimulates the activity of P2X2R and inhibits the activity of P2X4R. However, the mercury modulation is not related to the extracellular residues critical for copper modulation. To identify the site(s) for mercury action, we generated two chimeras using the full size P2X2 subunit, termed P2X2a, and a splice variant lacking a 69 residue segment in the C terminal, termed P2X2b, as the donors for intracellular and transmembrane segments and the P2X4 subunit as the donor for ectodomain segment of chimeras. The potentiating effect of mercury on ATP-induced current was preserved in Xenopus oocytes expressing P2X 4/2a chimera but was absent in oocytes expressing P2X4/2b chimera. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments revealed that the Cys 430 residue mediates effects of mercury on the P2X2aR activity. Because mercury could act as an oxidative stress inducer, we also tested whether hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and mitochondrial stress inducers myxothiazol and rotenone mimicked mercury effects. These experiments, done in both oocytes and human embryonic kidney HEK293 cells, revealed that these compounds potentiated the ATP-evoked P2X2aR and P2X4/2aR currents but not P2X2bR and P2X 2a-C430A and P2X2a-C430S mutant currents, whereas antioxidants dithiothreitrol and N-acetylcysteine prevented the H 2O2 potentiation. Alkylation of Cys430 residue with methylmethane-thiosulfonate also abolished the mercury and H 2O2 potentiation. Altogether, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that the Cys430 residue is an intracellular P2X2aR redox sensor. Copyright © 2009 Society for Neuroscience.
|Título según WOS:||Reactive Oxygen Species Potentiate the P2X(2) Receptor Activity through Intracellular Cys(430)|
|Título según SCOPUS:||Reactive oxygen species potentiate the P2X2 receptor activity through intracellular Cys430|
|Título de la Revista:||JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE|
|Fecha de publicación:||2009|
|Página de inicio:||12284|