Salmon aquaculture and coastal ecosystem health in Chile: Analysis of regulations, environmental impacts and bioremediation systems
In 2007 salmon, mollusk and seaweed aquaculture production in Chile totaled 904 thousand tonnes, making the nation the leading marine aquaculture producer in the western world. Salmonids grown in open cage net pens account for over 73% of the production. This review summarizes the current status of Chilean aquaculture and proposes the establishment of new regulations and monitoring programmes that encourage and accommodate emerging bioremediation technologies. In contrast to a rapidly expanding, well-financed and technologically advanced industry, the regulatory structure in Chile is outdated and based on insufficient science. The number of publications on the environmental impacts of salmon aquaculture in Chile is low relative to its production level. Nevertheless, the impacts of organic and inorganic waste on benthic communities, pelagic organisms and bird populations are documented. The technology to reduce these impacts using integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) strategies exists, but has not been implemented at commercial scales. We call on the government and industry to support the creation of a well-financed and politically independent agency responsible for developing and enforcing science-based environmental regulations in Chile. The agency's immediate goal should be to fund research required to develop a transparent, ecosystem-based regulatory framework that promotes IMTA. Monitoring programs and licensing procedures must consider the impacts of individual sites and the cumulative impacts from multiple sites across a wide range of spatial scales. Before such changes are realized, environmental threats and human health risks will remain unacceptably high and salmon farming in Chile will not meet any reasonable definition of sustainability. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
|Título según WOS:||Salmon aquaculture and coastal ecosystem health in Chile: Analysis of regulations, environmental impacts and bioremediation systems|
|Título según SCOPUS:||Salmon aquaculture and coastal ecosystem health in Chile: Analysis of regulations, environmental impacts and bioremediation systems|
|Título de la Revista:||Ocean and Coastal Management|
|Fecha de publicación:||2009|
|Página de inicio:||243|